Given the level of venom being directed at Donald Trump, it is not surprising that we are now seeing what is called “The Bradley Effect.” Tom Bradley was running for Mayor of Los Angeles a decade or two ago. He was black. The polls consistently showed him comfortably winning the election. He lost the election. After the results were in, it was concluded that people had LIED to the pollsters. The reason they lied was they didn’t want to be viewed as racists. They felt it was better to appear to be the Politically Correct, Diversity loving, Multicultural White People the pollsters expected them to be. In reality, once they were in the privacy of the voting booth, they voted for the other candidate. Hence, the Bradley Effect was created.

Donald Trump has done much better than the whore media, the Soros funded Marxist terrorists, and the mutant Republican Party elite ever thought he would. He has done better than the professional political hacks, and the pollsters have said he would do. The reason is people have figured out openly telling the pollsters they support Trump, or doing all the kinds of things like setting out lawn signs, or putting a bumper sticker on your car risks being called all kinds of names. So, they let the powers that be think Trump’s support is less than it really is.

We now see that happening in the latest polls out of Wisconsin. We have the official, mutant elite and media polls showing Cruz will crush Trump. Unfortunately, we also have other polls showing Trump with more support than the elite think he should have.

We have a CNN poll, that’s the Communist News Network that shows Cruz with an overwhelming lead over Trump.

The link is here.

CNN’s definition of a “wide lead,” is different than mine. Cruz has 40 percent, Trump has 30 percent, and Kasich has 21 percent. My view is a 10 point lead over Trump isn’t very big at all.

The next link contradicts the CNN poll.

The link is here.

This poll shows Cruz with 38 percent, and Trump with 37 percent. Of course, being elite shills, bought and paid for by Soros and his Marxist ilk, they whine that Cruz will still win big.

We also have a GOP poll that shows Trump with 48 percent and Cruz with 29 percent.

It is my view the only logical explanation for this is the Bradley Effect. I predict Trump will do much better in Wisconsin than what the polls are now showing. People will vote for Trump once they get into the ballot booth, but they will not risk the kind of concentrated abuse now being hurled at Trump supporters by the elite media, the Soros terrorists, or even the rapidly fading Republican elite.


Here is the Url of some of the many essays I wrote over at gold-eagle from 1998 to 2007.
My e book “Day of the Dogs” is now on SmashWords. The Url is here

The Url of my Amazon Kindle e books is here for the USA

The Url for my e books at amazon United Kingdom is here.

The e books are Day of the Dogs, Strike Destroyer, and Ezekiel’s Islamic Confederacy.

I also have a donation account at go fund me.

The link is here.


The following represents my thoughts on Ted Cruz’s current situation.


All that is hidden shall by revealed. What is kept silent shall be shouted from the rooftop. It is a devastating spiritual reality that Cruz, the lying Christian wolf in sheep’s clothing, is being taken down on Easter weekend.

We would all do well to remember that it is the Holy Spirit that converts people, and not us. We would do well to remember the judgment of God is executed by God, not us, on his timeline, his methods and for his reasons. Cruz is going down because he MOCKED GOD AND MOCKING GOD ALWASYS RESULTS IN JUDGMENT.

The more I look at this current Cruz situation I am reminded of Jimmy Swaggart going down. GOD WILL DEAL WITH CHRISTIAN HYPOCRITES ALL BY HIMSELF. One of the reasons I have not been so frantic about Cruz is I KNEW God would deal with this fraud. Cruz has tried to deceive God himself with his campaign.

God grinds slowly, but thoroughly. The only person I feel sorry for in this is Cruz’s wife and kids. He has betrayed and abandoned them. Cruz would do well to remember: Do not harm the little children or it would be better to tie a millstone around your neck and jump into the sea.

Cruz has managed to offend God, insult man, betray and abandon his wife and kids, as well as bring shame on Christ and his Church. Yep, God has shown many times he will take down arrogant frauds who abuse his trust.

The National Enquirer has legal teams that vet every single word of every single story they publish. If the NE didn’t think it was covered, or faced a MULTIMILLION DOLLAR LAWSUIT, the story wouldn’t have been published. Gawker was just fined nearly $125 million dollars for the Hulk Hogan sex tapes. Do you think the NE would publish this and face that kind of lawsuit if it wasn’t true? Sorry, the story is true; it has been covered up by the msm.

The real losers in this sorry mess will be: Cruz, the mainstream media and Cruz’s wife and kids.


Here is the Url of some of the many essays I wrote over at gold-eagle from 1998 to 2007.
My e book “Day of the Dogs” is now on SmashWords. The Url is here

The Url of my Amazon Kindle e books is here for the USA

The Url for my e books at amazon United Kingdom is here.

The e books are Day of the Dogs, Strike Destroyer, and Ezekiel’s Islamic Confederacy.

I also have a donation account at go fund me.

The link is here.


I have come to the conclusion our elites just don’t get it. I conclude it is a case of arrogance, or blindness, or sheer ignorance on their part. I also think the true reason they loathe Donald Trump is they think he is a traitor from their own class. It is not just what Trump says; it is the fact he says it at all. FDR was also viewed as a traitor by his fellow aristocrats.

The reality of our new war with Militant Islam can no longer be denied. Yet, our elite are still ranting the PC mantras with no apology. The elite refuse to make any serious effort to improve with border security. The elite refuses to make any effort at all to deal with the hordes of Muslim refugees pouring over our borders, or being brazenly flown into the USA and scattered like confetti at a parade. It is an insane policy. The elite don’t care.

Even by the low standards of Obama, his behavior on this trip to Cuba and Argentina has been unusually strange. It is bad enough for Obama to make nice with an unrepentant Raul and Fidel Castro. It is even worse to make no demands for any type of serious reform in Cuba; yet, go there and engage in folly and fantasy. The political dissidents Raul Castro arrested were not impressed when Obama went to a baseball game and did the wave with his new friends. We now have sold out to both Iran and Cuba. In return for this sell out, Obama has accomplished nothing at all, other than to make a fool of himself, further degrade the “full faith and credit,” of the USA government, and finally, make our enemies laugh at us. Obama’s legacy will be a nation further in debt, bitterly divided along race and class lines, and held in contempt by both our friends and our enemies.

The Roman historians I have read say the story of Caesar Nero playing the flute, or harp or whatever musical instrument it was, while Rome burned is false. We have lost most of Tacitus’s written history of the Nero era. It breaks off at book 66, yes, I know, so the last years of his reign are blank. What we do know is he was clearly unsuited to be the leader of Rome; we know that Obama is clearly unsuited to our leader. The last 7 years have proven again and again this statement to be true beyond any reasonable doubt. Personally, I think future historians, if there are any, will be brutal on the American Republic, its leaders; especially, its populace. Obama doesn’t exist in a vacuum. He was elected twice. He is even now the choice of between one third and one half of all Americans. The fact he is a self-indulgent fool, lazy, not very smart, and prone to taking foreign trips that resemble the Imperial procession of despots, is all part of his charm to his Obamabot supporters.

Still, in the context of the ISIS terror attacks in both Belgium and France, his doing to wave at a baseball game in Cuba, or dancing the Tango in Argentina, is a sign of decay and folly. I don’t know if Nero ever really did fiddle while Rome burned. I do know Obama danced the night away while Belgium burned. Perception is reality. Illusion is now substance. When Obama struts out on the global stage, much like a peacock waving its tail plume and shrieking loudly, the rest of the world now laughs at him. The problem for the rest of us Americans is when they laugh at Obama, they laugh at us.

If any of my blog readers gain any value from my writings, feel free to either buy my e-books, or make a donation at my go fund page. I don’t really like to whine for money, but I put a lot of time and thought into this blog, so I don’t feel guilty about asking for some financial support for that effort.

Here is the Url of some of the many essays I wrote over at gold-eagle from 1998 to 2007.
My e book “Day of the Dogs” is now on SmashWords. The Url is here

The Url of my Amazon Kindle e books is here for the USA

The Url for my e books at amazon United Kingdom is here.

The e books are Day of the Dogs, Strike Destroyer, and Ezekiel’s Islamic Confederacy.

I also have a donation account at go fund me.

The link is here.

ISIS IS COMING 3-23-2016

Simply put, we are now at war with ISIS all over the world. The fact our PC based leadership fails to accept this reality only means the carnage will be at the level needed to shatter the Western Democratic nations. This tidal wave of terror attacks will also lead to a populist based, nationalism focused political response in both the USA and Europe. It will empower the so called “far right” political parties. It will mean all the “hate speech,” now roundly condemned will become acceptable. It will mean the follow on governments will not be hampered by the idiocy of the current crop of PC based leaders and ideology. It will mean ISIS will trigger the kind of response it can’t live through. It will also mean the secular, non fanatic Muslims will be faced with a stark choice. They will either align with the “Infidels,” to crush both ISIS and Al Qaida, or they will be deported. The reality will be Muslims will no longer be tolerated. They will be guilty until proven innocent of Militant Islamic ideology and tactics. If Muslims now living in the west refuse to do that, or think they will not be seen as a threat, then they are hopelessly naïve. I will tell any Muslim reading this blog one thing. The people have had enough of this reign of terror. They will elect parties and leaders who will deal with Militant Islam. They will ignore the whining of the liberals. They will do the kinds of things that are needed to crush Militant Islam. Islam will either accept the new reality, or they will be confined to their nations. Obviously, the kind of fascist state regime needed to do that is something I don’t want to live under. However, ISIS and Al Qaida are going to get the “clash of civilizations” they so desire. Unfortunately for them, and Islam in general, the result will not be a new Caliphate. It will be the permanent exile of Muslims, as well as a new reality. Since Militant Islam is killing us, we will kill them. Any Muslim who we can’t be sure of will be seen as a threat. It is a hard truth. It is a brutal truth. It will be done. The current governments that tolerate, under a mantra of PC idiocy, the murder of their citizens will be voted out of office, replaced with harder leaders, using harder techniques, and with much harder values. This is the way things will be from now on.

ISIS Sends 400 Specially Trained Fighters To Unleash “Wave Of Bloodshed” In Europe

Tyler Durden's picture

Earlier today, we brought you the official statement in which ISIS claims responsibility for the attacks that left 34 people dead in Brussels on Tuesday. The group promises “black days for all crusader nations” and an attack “more devastating and bitter” than those that have come before (“Allah permitting,” of course).

Paris fugitive Salah Abdeslam has been variously characterized as the “ringleader” of the cell that was behind this week’s attack on Brussels. That’s probably because he’s now a household name in Europe and officials want the public to think a kind of field general has been captured. In reality, Abdeslam aborted his martyrdom mission in Paris and got himself arrested instead of dying for the “cause.” That’s not exactly behavior consistent with that seen in confirmed commanders like Abdelhamid Abaaoud and Omar al-Shishani. Rather, it would appear that Abdeslam effectively inherited Abaaoud’s cell upon returning to Belgium after backing out of the Paris attacks. ISIS likely saw some utility in keeping him around and Tuesday’s bombings suggest retaining him as a kind of organizer was a prudent decision. Or perhaps he was never meant to die in Paris. Who knows.

(Abaaoud – left – and friends, in “better” times)

Whatever the case, the important takeaway from Tuesday would appear to be that Abaaoud’s cell continued to operate and expand five months after his death and indeed, the group appears to have been using at least one of the very same bomb makers, Najim Laachraoui (who, incidentally, authorities now claim died in the Brussels airport).

(From left: Abaaoud, Abdeslam, Laachraoui)

Here’s what we said just this morning:

The thinking now is that ISIS cells have been given a certain amount of autonomy from central command in Raqqa and Mosul because, well, because there’s really no telling if there even is a central command at this juncture. One gets the impression that al-Hayat Media Center just kind of waits to see what happens and then if there’s a “successful” attack (Allahu akbar), then the propaganda arm simply claims it after the fact.

That dynamic in many ways makes the group more unpredictable, as semi-autonomous cells do not need al-Baghdadi’s approval before carrying out attacks.

In reality it’s probably not a more spectacular attack that Belgians should fear, but rather a series of “small” attacks like what unfolded Tuesday, perpetrated by a collection of individuals who do not need to appeal to a central authority and thus are free to hit soft targets spontaneously

So if you were looking for analysis on the state of the group’s thinking and their operational capacity as it relates to attacks in Western Europe, you could have simply read the above or, you could have consulted with European and Iraqi intelligence officials and a French lawmaker, who together – and presumably after countless hours of hand wringing over chatter gathered from surveilling jihadist chatter – came to exactly the same conclusion. Here’s AP:

Security officials have told The Associated Press that the Islamic State group has trained at least 400 attackers and sent them into Europe for terror attacks.

The network of interlocking, agile and semiautonomous cells shows the reach of the extremist group in Europe even as it loses ground in Syria.

The officials, including European and Iraqi intelligence officials and a French lawmaker who follows the jihadi networks, describe camps designed specifically to train for attacks against the West.

The officials say the fighters have been given orders to find the right time, place and method to carry out their mission.

Right. So exactly what we said this morning and precisely the conclusion that anyone who closely monitors the evolution of Sunni terror networks would have come to some 12 months ago after a police raid in Verviers proved beyond a shadow of a doubt that what happened at the Jewish Museum of Belgium in May of 2014 was no isolated event.

In any event, since AP has reported it, it’s now officially true we suppose, which means there are 400 well-trained Islamic State fighters embedded throughout Europe and organized into semi-autonomous cells (let’s call them proto-caliphates) just waiting for the “right” time and place to strike.

For any “intelligence” officials who may read this we would only add one thing: there are probably a whole lot more than 400…

Here is the Url of some of the many essays I wrote over at gold-eagle from 1998 to 2007.
My e book “Day of the Dogs” is now on SmashWords. The Url is here

The Url of my Amazon Kindle e books is here for the USA

The Url for my e books at amazon United Kingdom is here.

The e books are Day of the Dogs, Strike Destroyer, and Ezekiel’s Islamic Confederacy.

I also have a donation account at go fund me.

The link is here.



And now back to our regularly scheduled doom and gloom, blog readers. If after today’s events you don’t want to hop on a space shuttle to an alternate dimension, you haven’t been paying attention.

It is obvious ISIS is capable of wider ranging terror attacks than the PC crowd can mentally accept. No matter how loudly the PC morons chant “Can’t we all get along,” it won’t help. Militant Islam believes in Sharia Law. Sharia Law rejects all other legal systems: Roman law, Middle Ages Law, English Common Law and American Constitutional Law. Sharia law has no mercy; it has no compassion. It is the law of the jungle; the law of an eye for an eye. The basic problem with Islam in general and Militant Islam in particular, is they are thinking in Old Testament terms. Militant Islam wants to go back to either the sixth or seventh century AD, depending on whether you are talking Shia or Sunni. The rest of the world has moved on. Islam has not. It is a very simple equation in my view. Islam will either come to terms with modern life, or they will be exterminated by it.

I do not think all Muslims are terrorists. I do not think Islam is incapable of making the mental adjustments to live through the coming purge of Militant Islam from modern society. I do think Muslims are going to have to make a choice about their religion. Muslims, who think Jihad, or holy war, is a literal call to be suicide bombers will eventually be hunted down and eliminated from modern life. Muslims who understand Jihad is an internal spiritual battle will survive. Muslims who are not violent, vicious animals like ISIS, or both the Shia and Sunni fundamentalists will have a place at the table 50 years from now. If they do not, they will be at best be quarantined, and at worst crushed into impotence. One thing they will never be allowed to do is take over advanced cultures and take them back to the sixth century.

Any Muslims who think Militant Islam won’t create the kind of fascist, totalitarian governments in the nations of the west that will do all the things the PC crowd despises, is deluding themselves. I assure any Muslim reading this of one thing: the day a nuke goes off in CONUS, the response will be a holy war of our own. I hope that Muslims who are not misled by a flawed view of Islam will come to their senses. If they do not, then the blood is on them.

The buzz word for diplomats is “unacceptable.” Whenever a terror attack happens, they trot it out like some kind of magical charm. Once Trump is elected US President this will fade away. Today’s elections in Arizona, Utah and American Samoa will reflect the fact that ISIS just brazenly attacked Belgium and brought it to its knees. I think ISIS is getting desperate as Putin hammers them into the ground. They are now engaged in the warfare of the weak. It will do them no good. Militant Islam is under the impression they have people cowed. They do not. Militant Islam is under the impression the gutless fool Obama is the type of leader they will always be dealing with. Trump will be taking over from Obama within a few months. Militant Islam is under the impression we can’t be as ruthless as they are, or as vicious as they are, or as brutal as they are. They are wrong.

Militant Islam confuses the fascist, oligarchs running the USA today as credible leaders. They are not. The time is coming when the BS will be swept aside. The time is coming when the American people, following their new leader Donald Trump, will have had enough, become angry enough to kick some serious Militant Islam ass. I saw a woman walking down the street in downtown Portland, Oregon. She was wearing a full burka. I have to say the sight filled me with a wrath I have not felt for some time now. The time is coming when Muslims will no longer be welcome in the USA. And when the liberal morons protest, they will have the living daylights beaten out of them. It is coming. I do not care if people call me a fascist. I don’t care if they like me, or think I am a good person. We are now in the final phases of this fascist, totalitarian police state called the USA. It will be changed by Trump, or it will collapse into chaos. At this point, I am more than willing to take down the pillars, just like Samson did, and live with the results. I despise Militant Islam. I despise people who murder children, rape women like sex slaves and engage in the behavior of savages. I do not think that is Islam, but I will brook no crap on the point. Islam will change, or it will die.

Today also saw the release of a video by Ted Cruz so repulsive, so venal and arrogant, I hesitate to post it. In it, Lying Ted claims Trump is responsible for the terror attacks in Belgium today. The level of contempt I feel for Militant Islam is only slightly less than I feel for Mr. Cruz. He is not a Christian in my view; he is wolf in sheep’s clothing. Cruz is that type of American Christian who sickens me. He may have been ordered by his globalist masters to adopt a scorched earth policy towards Mr. Trump. Our RINO whores, their elite shills and donors may have decided to so trash the current Republican Party to prevent a Trump victory that they really don’t care. The RINO elite seem to be headed towards making a Hellary the Witch victory inevitable.

The link is here.

A New Low – Senator Ted Cruz Blames Donald Trump for Brussels Terrorist Attacks (video)…

Here is the Url of some of the many essays I wrote over at gold-eagle from 1998 to 2007.
My e book “Day of the Dogs” is now on SmashWords. The Url is here

The Url of my Amazon Kindle e books is here for the USA

The Url for my e books at amazon United Kingdom is here.

The e books are Day of the Dogs, Strike Destroyer, and Ezekiel’s Islamic Confederacy.

I also have a donation account at go fund me.

The link is here.


Considering the current situation in our own universe, solar system and dimension, perhaps we need to be planning to go somewhere else soon. Granted, we will likely trash any new planet, solar system, dimension, or universe we end up in. Still, clearly some of our mutant elite are preparing for a fall back plan involving travel to other planets. At any rate, this is an interesting article, covering something I have long suspected; namely, the universe is an amazing, awesome, and relatively misunderstood phenomena. What we think of as reality is merely solidified light waves. If we could see, at the atomic and molecular level, we would view rapidly moving atomic particles. The current reality we experience is based on our five senses. This reality is limited to the physical limitations of those five senses. For example, when I walk out of my apartment building door I see “reality.” However, what I see as reality is only one level, the upper level, of what is truly there. The car I see as a solid object is in “true reality,” a mass of atomic particles moving at speeds my eyes are unable to analyze. The spiritual metaphysics of all religions have been merging with the science of physics for the last several decades. What was once science is now fully merged with the chaos theory into a hybrid.

At any rate, as I watch the ongoing collapse of our civilization I do keep track of the deeper, fundamental, true realities of our universe. Planet Earth is really just solidified light particles. Human beings are merely light slowed down enough to be visible using our limited five senses. In reality, the brain has few limits, thought has even fewer. The human mind and thought have no scientific reason for not being capable of light speed transmission from one end of the universe to the other. The terms “higher plane of existence,” may very well just be dimensions using a different speed of light particle movements.

I think there is a very good chance we are going to blow up Earth. On the other hand, there is no death, since all matter is recycled, nor is there any elimination of consciousness during death. We were here; we die, and then our human consciousness goes somewhere else, or perhaps returns to it original, true state.

  • By Philip Ball

21 March 2016


Is our Universe one of many?

The idea of parallel universes, once consigned to science fiction, is now becoming respectable among scientists – at least, among physicists, who have a tendency to push ideas to the limits of what is conceivable.

In fact there are almost too many other potential universes. Physicists have proposed several candidate forms of “multiverse”, each made possible by a different aspect of the laws of physics.

The trouble is, virtually by definition we probably cannot ever visit these other universes to confirm that they exist. So the question is, can we devise other ways to test for the existence of entire universes that we cannot see or touch?

Earth is one of many planets (Credit: Mopic/Alamy Stock Photo)

Earth is one of many planets (Credit: Mopic/Alamy Stock Photo)

Worlds within worlds

In at least some of these alternative universes, it has been suggested, we have doppelgängers living lives much like – perhaps almost identical to – our own.

Giordano Bruno speculated that the Universe might be infinite

That idea tickles our ego and awakens our fantasies, which is doubtless why the multiverse theories, however far-out they seem, enjoy so much popularity. We have embraced alternative universes in works of fiction ranging from Philip K. Dick’s The Man in the High Castle to movies like Sliding Doors.

Indeed, there is nothing new about the idea of a multiverse, as philosopher of religion Mary-Jane Rubenstein explains in her 2014 book Worlds Without End.

In the mid-16th century, Copernicus argued that the Earth is not the centre of the Universe. Several decades later, Galileo’s telescope showed him stars beyond measure: a glimpse of the vastness of the cosmos.

So at the end of the 16th century, the Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno speculated that the Universe might be infinite, populated by an infinite number of inhabited worlds.

Fontenelle's "Plurality of Worlds" (Credit: King's College London/Science Photo Library)

An illustration from Fontenelle’s “Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds” (1686) (Credit: King’s College London/Science Photo Library)

The idea of a Universe containing many solar systems became commonplace in the 18th Century.

By the early 20th Century, the Irish physicist Edmund Fournier d’Albe was even suggesting that there might be an infinite regression of “nested” universes at different scales, ever larger and ever smaller. In this view, an individual atom might be like a real, inhabited solar system.

Scientists today reject that notion of a “Russian doll” multiverse, but they have postulated several other ways in which multiverses might exist. Here are five of them, along with a rough guide to how likely they are.

Distant galaxies (Credit: NASA/ESA/HST Frontier Fields team (STScl)/Judy Schmidt)

Distant galaxies (Credit: NASA/ESA/HST Frontier Fields team (STScl)/Judy Schmidt)

The patchwork universe

The simplest multiverse is a consequence of the infinite size of our own Universe.

There must be worlds identical to Earth somewhere out there

We do not actually know if the Universe is infinite, but we cannot rule it out. If it is, then it must be divided into a patchwork of regions that cannot see one another.

This is simply because the regions are too far apart for light to have crossed the distance. Our Universe is only 13.8 billion years old, so any regions further than 13.8 billion light years apart are utterly cut off.

To all intents and purposes, these regions are separate universes. But they will not stay that way: eventually light will cross the divide and the universes will merge.

If our Universe really does contain an infinite number of “island universes” like ours, with matter and stars and planets, there must be worlds identical to Earth somewhere out there.

If the Universe is infinite, there should be countless Earths (Credit: NASA)

If the Universe is infinite, there should be countless Earths (Credit: NASA)

It may sound incredibly unlikely that atoms should come together by chance into an exact replica of Earth, or a replica that is exact except for the colour of your socks. But in a genuine infinity of worlds, even that strange place must exist. In fact, it must exist countless times.

The Universe began as an infinitesimally tiny point and then expanded incredibly fast in a super-heated fireball

If so, then somewhere almost unimaginably far off, a being identical to me is typing out these words, and wondering if his editor is going to insist on radical revisions. [nice try Phil – ed]

By the same logic, rather farther away there is an entire observable universe identical to ours. This distance can be estimated at about 10 to the power 10 to the power 118 metres.

It is possible that this is not the case at all. Maybe the Universe is not infinite. Or even if it is, maybe all the matter is concentrated in our corner of it, in which case most of the other universes could be empty. But there is no obvious reason why that should be, and no sign so far that matter gets sparser the farther away we look.

Our Universe is expanding (Credit: Mehau Kulyk/Science Photo Library)

Our Universe is expanding (Credit: Mehau Kulyk/Science Photo Library)

The inflationary multiverse

The second multiverse theory arises from our best ideas about how our own Universe began.

According to the predominant view of the Big Bang, the Universe began as an infinitesimally tiny point and then expanded incredibly fast in a super-heated fireball. A fraction of a second after this expansion began, it may have fleetingly accelerated at a truly enormous rate, far faster than the speed of light. This burst is called “inflation”.

There are many, perhaps infinitely many, universes appearing and growing all the time

Inflationary theory explains why the Universe is relatively uniform everywhere we look. Inflation blew up the fireball to a cosmic scale before it had a chance to get too clumpy.

However, that primordial state would have been ruffled by tiny chance variations, which also got blown up by inflation. These fluctuations are now preserved in the cosmic microwave background radiation, the faint afterglow of the Big Bang. This radiation pervades the Universe, but it is not perfectly uniform.

Several satellite-based telescopes have mapped out these variations in fine detail, and compared them to those predicted by inflationary theory. The match is almost unbelievably good, suggesting that inflation really did happen.

Just after the Big Bang (Credit: Detlev van Ravenswaay/Science Photo Library)

Just after the Big Bang, the Universe expanded rapidly: this is called “inflation” (Credit: Detlev van Ravenswaay/Science Photo Library)

This suggests that we can understand how the Big Bang happened – in which case we can reasonably ask if it happened more than once.

The current view is that the Big Bang happened when a patch of ordinary space, containing no matter but filled with energy, appeared within a different kind of space called the “false vacuum”. It then grew like an expanding bubble.

Perhaps our Universe is simply one of a crowd

But according to this theory, the false vacuum should also experience a kind of inflation, causing it to expand at fantastic speed. Meanwhile, other bubble universes of “true vacuum” can appear within it – and not just, like our Universe, 13.8 billion years ago, but constantly.

This scenario is called “eternal inflation”. It suggests there are many, perhaps infinitely many, universes appearing and growing all the time. But we can never reach them, even if we travel at the speed of light forever, because they are receding too fast for us ever to catch up.

The UK Astronomer Royal Martin Rees suggests that the inflationary multiverse theory represents a “fourth Copernican revolution”: the fourth time that we have been forced to downgrade our status in the heavens. After Copernicus suggested Earth was just one planet among others, we realized that our Sun is just one star in our galaxy, and that other stars might have planets. Then we discovered that our galaxy is just one among countless more in an expanding Universe. And now perhaps our Universe is simply one of a crowd.

(Credit: European Space Agency/Planck collaboration/Science Photo Library)

The cosmic microwave background offers evidence for inflation (Credit: European Space Agency/Planck collaboration/Science Photo Library)

We do not yet know for sure if inflationary theory is true.

However, if eternal inflation does create a multiverse from an endless series of Big Bangs, it could help to resolve one of the biggest problems in modern physics.

The fundamental constants of the laws of physics seem bizarrely fine-tuned to the values needed for life to exist

Some physicists have long been searching for a “theory of everything“: a set of basic laws, or perhaps just a single equation, from which all the other principles of physics can be derived. But they have found there are more alternatives to choose from than there are fundamental particles in the known universe.

Many physicists who delve into these waters believe that an idea called string theory is the best candidate for a “final theory”. But the latest version offers a huge number of distinct solutions: 1 followed by 500 zeros. Each solution yields its own set of physical laws, and we have no obvious reason to prefer one over any other.

The inflationary multiverse relieves us of the need to choose at all. If parallel universes have been popping up in an inflating false vacuum for billions of years, each could have different physical laws, determined by one of these many solutions to string theory.

If that is true, it could help us explain a strange property of our own Universe.

Bubble universes (Credit: Detlev van Ravenswaay/Science Photo Library)

Eternal inflation leads to bubble universes (Credit: Detlev van Ravenswaay/Science Photo Library)

The fundamental constants of the laws of physics seem bizarrely fine-tuned to the values needed for life to exist.

Things have to be the way we find them: if they were not, we would not be here and the question would never arise

For example, if the strength of the electromagnetic force were just a little different, atoms would not be stable. Just a 4% change would prevent all nuclear fusion in stars, the process that makes the carbon atoms our bodies are largely made of.

Similarly, there is a delicate balance between gravity, which pulls matter towards itself, and so-called dark energy, which does the opposite and makes the Universe expand ever faster. This is just what is needed to make stars possible while not collapsing the Universe on itself.

In this and several other ways, the Universe seems fine-tuned to host us. This has made some people suspect the hand of God.

Yet an inflationary multiverse, in which all conceivable physical laws operate somewhere, offers an alternative explanation.

Other universes might be different to ours (Credit: Take 27 Ltd/Science Photo Library)

Other universes might be different to ours (Credit: Take 27 Ltd/Science Photo Library)

In every universe set up in this life-friendly way, the argument goes, intelligent beings will be scratching their heads trying to understand their luck. In the far more numerous universes that are set up differently, there is no one to ask the question.

If you don’t want God, you’d better have a multiverse

This is an example of the “anthropic principle”, which says that things have to be the way we find them: if they were not, we would not be here and the question would never arise.

For many physicists and philosophers, this argument is a cheat: a way to evade rather than explain the fine-tuning problem.

How can we test these assertions, they ask? Surely it is defeatist to accept that there is no reason why the laws of nature are what they are, and simply say that in other universes they are different?

The trouble is, unless you have some other explanation for fine-tuning, someone will assert that God must have set things up this way. The astrophysicist Bernard Carr has put it bluntly: “If you don’t want God, you’d better have a multiverse“.

Two branes collide, creating a new universe (Credit: Harald Ritsch/Science Photo Library)

Two branes collide, creating a new universe (Credit: Harald Ritsch/Science Photo Library)

Cosmic natural selection

Another kind of multiverse avoids what some see as the slipperiness of this reasoning, offering a solution to the fine-tuning problem without invoking the anthropic principle.

A “mother” universe can give birth to “baby” universes

It was formulated by Lee Smolin of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Canada. In 1992 he proposed that universes might reproduce and evolve rather like living things do.

On Earth, natural selection favours the emergence of “useful” traits such as fast running or opposable thumbs. In the multiverse, Smolin argues, there might be some pressure that favours universes like ours. He calls this “cosmological natural selection”.

Smolin’s idea is that a “mother” universe can give birth to “baby” universes, which form inside it. The mother universe can do this if it contains black holes.

A black hole (Credit: NASA/JPL-CalTech)

A black hole (Credit: NASA/JPL-CalTech)

A black hole forms when a huge star collapses under the pull of its own gravity, crushing all the atoms together until they reach infinite density.

It is a neat idea, because our Universe then does not have to be the product of pure chance

In the 1960s, Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose pointed out that this collapse is like a mini-Big Bang in reverse. This suggested to Smolin that a black hole could become a Big Bang, spawning an entire new universe within itself.

If that is so, then the new universe might have slightly different physical properties from the one that made the black hole. This is like the random genetic mutations that mean baby organisms are different from their parents.

If a baby universe has physical laws that permit the formation of atoms, stars and life, it will also inevitably contain black holes. That will mean it can have more baby universes of its own. Over time, universes like this will become more common than those without black holes, which cannot reproduce.

Could one universe create others? (Credit: Victor de Schwanberg/Science Photo Library)

Could one universe give birth to others? (Credit: Victor de Schwanberg/Science Photo Library)

It is a neat idea, because our Universe then does not have to be the product of pure chance. If a fine-tuned universe arose at random, surrounded by many other universes that were not fine-tuned, cosmic natural selection would mean that fine-tuned universes subsequently became the norm.

So far, there is no evidence that this is the case

The details of the idea are a little woolly, but Smolin points out that it has one big advantage: we can test it.

For example, if Smolin is right we should expect our Universe to be especially suited to making black holes. This is a rather more demanding criterion than simply saying it should support the existence of atoms.

But so far, there is no evidence that this is the case – let alone proof that a black hole really can spawn an entirely new universe.

Extra dimensions could be curled up (Credit: Pasieka/Science Photo Library)

Extra dimensions could be curled up (Credit: Pasieka/Science Photo Library)

The brane multiverse

When Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity began to come to public attention in the 1920s, many people speculated about the “fourth dimension” that Einstein had allegedly invoked. What might be in there? A hidden universe, maybe?

Perhaps the fifth dimension was curled up into an unimaginably small distance

This was nonsense. Einstein was not proposing a new dimension. What he was saying was that time is a dimension, similar to the three dimensions of space. All four are woven into a single fabric called space-time, which gets distorted by gravity.

Even so, other physicists were already starting to speculate about genuinely new dimensions in space.

The first intimation of hidden dimensions began with the work of the theoretical physicist Theodor Kaluza. In a 1921 paper Kaluza showed that, by adding an extra dimension to the equations of Einstein’s theory of general relativity, he could obtain an extra equation that seemed to predict the existence of light.

That looked promising. But where, then, was this extra dimension?

String theory (Credit: Harald Ritsch/Science Photo Library)

String theory is a possible theory of everything (Credit: Harald Ritsch/Science Photo Library)

The Swedish physicist Oskar Klein offered an answer in 1926. Perhaps the fifth dimension was curled up into an unimaginably small distance: about a billion-trillion-trillionth of a centimetre.

In the modern version of string theory, known as M-theory, there are up to seven hidden dimensions

The idea of a dimension being curled may seem strange, but it is actually a familiar phenomenon. A garden hose is a three-dimensional object, but from far enough away it looks like a one-dimensional line, because the other two dimensions are so small. Similarly, it takes so little time to cross Klein’s extra dimension that we do not notice it.

Physicists have since taken Kaluza and Klein’s ideas much further in string theory. This seeks to explain fundamental particles as the vibrations of even smaller entities called strings.

When string theory was developed in the 1980s, it turned out that it could only work if there were extra dimensions. In the modern version of string theory, known as M-theory, there are up to seven hidden dimensions.

The brane multiverse (Credit: Victor de Schwanberg/Science Photo Library)

The brane multiverse: a stack of universes (Credit: Victor de Schwanberg/Science Photo Library)

What’s more, these dimensions need not be compact after all. They can be extended regions called branes (short for “membranes”), which may be multi-dimensional.

If branes collide, the results could be monumental

A brane might be a perfectly adequate hiding place for an entire universe. M-theory postulates a multiverse of branes of various dimensions, coexisting rather like a stack of papers.

If this is true, there should be a new class of particles called Kaluza-Klein particles. In theory we could make them, perhaps in a particle accelerator like the Large Hadron Collider. They would have distinctive signatures, because some of their momentum is carried in the hidden dimensions.

These brane worlds should remain quite distinct and separate from each other, because forces like gravity do not pass between them. But if branes collide, the results could be monumental. Conceivably, such a collision could have triggered our own Big Bang.

Perhaps two branes collided (Credit: Nicolle R. Fuller/Science Photo Library)

Perhaps our Universe was born when two branes collided (Credit: Nicolle R. Fuller/Science Photo Library)

It has also been proposed that gravity, uniquely among the fundamental forces, might “leak” between branes. This leakage could explain why gravity is so weak compared to the other fundamental forces.

If their idea is true, there is an awful lot of space out there for other universes

As Lisa Randall of Harvard University puts it: “if gravity is spread out over large extra dimensions, its force would be diluted.”

In 1999, Randall and her colleague Raman Sundrum suggested that the branes do not just carry gravity, they produce it by curving space. In effect this means that a brane “concentrates” gravity, so that it looks weak in a second brane nearby.

This could also explain why we could live on a brane with infinite extra dimensions without noticing them. If their idea is true, there is an awful lot of space out there for other universes.

This cat is both dead and alive (Credit: Victor de Schwanberg/Science Photo Library)

“Superposition” means an object is in two states at once, like a cat that is both dead and alive (Credit: Victor de Schwanberg/Science Photo Library)

The quantum multiverse

The theory of quantum mechanics is one of the most successful in all of science. It explains the behaviour of very small objects, such as atoms and their constituent fundamental particles. It can predict all kinds of phenomena, from the shapes of molecules to the way light and matter interact, with phenomenal accuracy.

Quantum mechanics treats particles as if they are waves, and describes them with a mathematical expression called a wave function.

When we make a measurement we only see one of those realities, but the others also exist

Perhaps the strangest feature of a wave function is that it allows a quantum particle to exist in several states at once. This is called a superposition.

But superpositions are generally destroyed as soon as we measure the object in any way. An observation “forces” the object to “choose” one particular state.

This switch from a superposition to a single state, caused by measurement, is called “collapse of the wave function”. The trouble is, it is not really described by quantum mechanics, so no one knows how or why it happens.

In his 1957 doctoral thesis, the American physicist Hugh Everett suggested that we might stop fretting about the awkward nature of wave function collapse, and just do away with it.

The Universe splits in two (Credit: Carol and Mike Werner/Science Photo Library)

The Universe splits in two (Credit: Carol and Mike Werner/Science Photo Library)

Everett suggested that objects do not switch from multiple states to a single state when they are measured or observed. Instead, all the possibilities encoded in the wave function are equally real. When we make a measurement we only see one of those realities, but the others also exist.

This is known as the “many worlds interpretation” of quantum mechanics.

To avoid wave function collapse, you must make another universe

Everett was not very specific about where these other states actually exist. But in the 1970s, the physicist Bryce DeWitt argued that each alternative outcome must exist in a parallel reality: another world.

Suppose you conduct an experiment in which you measure the path of an electron. In this world it goes one way, but in another world it goes another way.

That requires a parallel apparatus for the electron to pass through. It also requires a parallel you to measure it. In fact you have to build an entire parallel universe around that one electron, identical in all respects except where the electron went.

In short, to avoid wave function collapse, you must make another universe.

A multiverse of bubble universes (Credit: Harald Ritsch/Science Photo Library)

A multiverse of bubble universes (Credit: Harald Ritsch/Science Photo Library)

This picture really gets extravagant when you appreciate what a measurement is. In DeWitt’s view, any interaction between two quantum entities, say a photon of light bouncing off an atom, can produce alternative outcomes and therefore parallel universes.

The quantum multiverse must be in some sense real, because quantum theory demands it and quantum theory works

As DeWitt put it, “every quantum transition taking place on every star, in every galaxy, in every remote corner of the Universe is splitting our local world on earth into myriads of copies.”

Not everyone sees Everett’s many-worlds interpretation this way. Some say it is largely a mathematical convenience, and that we cannot say anything meaningful about the contents of those alternative universes.

But others take seriously the idea that there are countless other “yous”, created every time a quantum measurement is made. The quantum multiverse must be in some sense real, they say, because quantum theory demands it and quantum theory works.

You either buy that argument or you do not. But if you accept it, you must also accept something rather unsettling.

(Credit: NASA/ESA/G. Illingworth, D. Magee, P. Oesch/R. Bouwens/HUDF09 team)

Our Universe seems to go on forever (Credit: NASA/ESA/G. Illingworth, D. Magee, P. Oesch, University of California Santa Cruz/R. Bouwens, Leiden University/HUDF09 team)

The other kinds of parallel universes, such as those created by eternal inflation, are truly “other worlds”. They exist somewhere else in space and time, or in other dimensions. They might contain exact copies of you, but those copies are separate, like a body double living on another continent.

Who are we to judge what is weird and what is not?

In contrast, the other universes of the many-worlds interpretation do not exist in other dimensions or other regions of space. Instead, they are right here, superimposed on our Universe but invisible and inaccessible. The other selves they contain really are “you”.

In fact, there is no meaningful “you” at all. “You” are becoming distinct beings an absurd number of times every second: just think of all the quantum events that happen as a single electrical signal travels along a single neuron in your brain. “You” vanish into the crowd.

In other words, an idea that started out as a mathematical convenience ends up implying that there is no such thing as individuality.

Part of the Large Hadron Collider (Credit: Stefan A. Gärtner)

Part of the Large Hadron Collider (Credit: Stefan A. Gärtner)

Testing the multiverse

Given the strange implications of parallel universes, you might be forgiven some skepticism about whether they exist.

But who are we to judge what is weird and what is not? Scientific ideas stand or fall, not by how they “feel” to us, but by experimental testing.

And that is the problem. An alternative universe is separate from our own. By definition, it is beyond reach and out of sight. On the whole, multiverse theories cannot be tested by looking for those other worlds.

Yet even if other universes cannot be experienced directly, it might be possible to find evidence to support the reasoning behind them.

When universes collide (Credit: Nicolle R. Fuller/Science Photo Library)

When universes collide (Credit: Nicolle R. Fuller/Science Photo Library)

For example, we could find strong evidence for the inflationary theory of the Big Bang. That would strengthen, but not prove, the case for an inflationary multiverse.

It’s proven remarkably hard to write down a theory which produces exactly the universe we see and nothing more

Some cosmologists have proposed that an inflationary multiverse might be more directly tested. A collision between our expanding bubble universe and another one should leave detectable traces in the cosmic microwave background – if we were close enough to see them.

Similarly, experiments envisaged for the Large Hadron Collider could search for evidence of the additional dimensions and particles implied by the braneworld theory.

Some argue that experimental verification is over-rated anyway. They say we can gauge the validity of a scientific idea by other means, such as whether it rests on sound logic spun from premises that do have observational support.

Finally, we might make statistical predictions.

For example, we could use the inflationary multiverse theory to predict which values of the physical constants would be expected in most universes, and then see whether these are close to the ones we see – on the basis that there is no reason to expect us to be anywhere special in the multiverse.

BICEP2 telescope (Credit: NSF/Steffen Richter/Harvard University/Science Photo Library)

The BICEP2 telescope could find evidence of inflation (Credit: NSF/Steffen Richter/Harvard University/Science Photo Library)

At any rate, it does seem odd that the multiverse keeps cropping up wherever we look. “It’s proven remarkably hard to write down a theory which produces exactly the universe we see and nothing more,” says physicist Max Tegmark.

Multiverse theories cannot be tested by looking for those other worlds

Even so, it is not clear that newspaper headlines will announce the discovery of another universe any time soon. Right now, these ideas lie on the border of physics and metaphysics.

In the absence of any evidence, then, here is a rough-and-ready – and frankly subjective – ranking of the probabilities of the various multiverses, the most likely first.

The patchwork multiverse is hard to avoid – if our Universe really is infinite and uniform.

The inflationary multiverse is rather likely if inflationary theory is true, and right now inflation is our best explanation for the Big Bang.

Cosmic natural selection is an ingenious idea but involves speculative physics, and there are a lot of unanswered questions.

Brane worlds arefar more speculative, because they can only exist if all those extra dimensions do, and there is no direct evidence of that.

The quantum multiverse is arguably the simplest interpretation of quantum theory, but it is also vaguely defined and leads to an incoherent view of selfhood.


History will record the creation of a Kurdish Federated zone in both Iraq and Syria as a defining event in modern history. The Kurds will not be denied this time. The Kurds will brook no attempt to deny them the single goal they have sought for centuries. The result of that effort will set the Middle East on fire. It will eventually result in the partition of Iraq, Syria and Turkey. It is already causing chaos in the ongoing farce called the “Syrian Peace Talks,” in Geneva, Switzerland. The professional diplomats don’t really know how to deal with the situation.

We know the Kurdish goal is zone covering most of Northern Iraq, what used to be the 1991 no fly zone, now combined with the entire Iraqi and Syrian border with Turkey. Further, there is no doubt, at least to me; the Kurds intend to annex most of Southeastern Turkey. This is the area where most of the Kurds living in Turkey make their homes. This entire region is already in rebellion against Erdogan and his increasingly fascist regime. Erdogan is now engaged in what can only be called genocide against the Kurdish cities. Cities that are now in rebellion to his government. The Kurds in Syria are not going to let that go unchallenged. Once they finish closing the final pocket containing ISIS and Al Qaida, they will not hesitate to send in military supplies to their comrades fighting the Turkish military and the Grey Wolf terrorists Erdogan has sent in to murder civilians. The Kurds will launch cross border operations, send in sapper teams, and begin a campaign of forcing the Turkish military to cede control to the Kurds.

Erdogan will then request NATO implement clause 5. Clause 5 is the call for help from a country that is being invaded. Erdogan will never allow the creation of a Kurdish state on his border with Syria and Iraq. Erdogan will never allow Turkey to be partitioned. Turkey will be in the same situation as the Ukraine now is in. He will have lost a chunk of his country to the Kurdish state. He will scream for help from NATO, the EU, and the US. I don’t know if he will get it, but he will certainly demand it. Granted, he is kicking out German journalists, calling anybody who doesn’t agree with him a terrorist and throwing people in jail for “insulting” him. In fact, there have been over 2,000 people charged with making disparaging comments about him.

I see the situation unfolding as follows. It will take the Kurds a few more days, possibly a month or two, or three, to seal the final border pocket. They will have then forced ISIS and Al Qaida over the Turkish border, kicked them out of Syria completely, and sealed off all supply routes for any group deeper inside of Syria. All of this is being combined with ongoing attacks all over Syria to exterminate the final remnants of Al Qaida and ISIS. ISIS is also completely cut off from Iraq. It is being forced into smaller and smaller pockets subject to air strikes, artillery strikes and eventual infantry attacks.

Putin has replaced any fighter jets he pulled out with his most advanced attack helicopters. He has given the Kurds enough anti-aircraft defenses to make Turkish bombing runs dangerous. It is only a matter of time before one of the Turkish and Saudi Arabian jets gets shot down over Iraq or Syria. Once that happens, all hell is going to break lose.

It was also reported today that nearly 250 cease fire violations have taken place since the start of the cease fire. Considering ISIS and Al Qaida have been pounded without mercy, this means the other 97 groups must be still fighting. The positive news spin about the cease fire is revealed to be just another lie. Once the Mosul offensive begins, I can say both Iraq and Syria are at war, just like they have been at war for the last few years.


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